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Is Enamel Cookware Toxic? No, But…

is enamel cookware toxic
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You’ve probably heard about the concerns surrounding the toxicity of nonstick cookware, but what about enamelware? Is enamel cookware toxic? The short answer is no, but there are a few things to be mindful of. 

In this article, we’ll delve into the world of enamel cookware, exploring what it is, whether it’s toxic, and how to care for it to ensure its safety.

What Exactly is Enamel Cookware?

Enamel cookware is a versatile kitchen companion that’s cherished for its aesthetics and practicality. It typically consists of a metal core, often cast iron, encased in a layer of smooth enamel. 

So, what is cookware enamel made of?

The enamel itself is created through a process of fusing powdered glass onto the metal surface at high temperatures. So, enamel is actually glass! The enameling process results in a durable, relatively non-stick, non-reactive (and yes, non-toxic) cooking surface that does not leach metallic flavors into your food.

Enameled pans are favored for their even heat distribution and easy care, not requiring the extensive seasoning that traditional cast iron does.

Is Enamel Cookware Toxic? No, But Keep this in Mind

Enamel is perfectly safe, with a few caveats. It’s safety depends on the following best practices:

is enamel in cookware toxic? safe use

The Perils of Scratching

Enamel, while robust, is not invincible. You can easily scratch it if you’re not careful. Using metal utensils or applying excessive force during cleaning can and will damage the enamel layer.

When the enamel is compromised, the underlying metal may be exposed, which can react with acidic ingredients (i.e. tomato sauce) and leach metal into your food. So, handle your enamel cookware with care to avoid scratches, and don’t use older pans where the enamel is breaking down (thanks but no thanks antique store Dutch oven!).

The Heat Factor

Enamel is quite heat-resistant, but it’s not immune to extreme temperatures. Overheating can lead to discoloration or even chipping of the enamel coating. To prevent this, avoid heating your enamel cookware above 400-450°F and never leave an empty enamel pot or pan on a hot burner. Make sure to read your cookware’s label for exact temperatures.

It’s also best to avoid sudden temperature changes (from hot to cold or vice versa), as this can cause the enamel to crack.

Lead and Cadmium Concerns

Historically, some enameled pots and pans (particularly those with vibrant colors like orange and red) used lead and cadmium additives. These substances raised health concerns. However, modern enamel cookware manufacturers have addressed these worries.

While very trace amounts of lead and cadmium might be present on the exterior enamel of some cookware, it does not contact your food. Newer production techniques also ensure that these metals remain firmly bound within the enamel coating.

Read more: How to Tell if Dishes Have Lead (Actionable Guide)

Caring for Your Enamel: How to Maintain Safe Enamel Cookware

To keep your enamel in pristine condition, ensure it stays safe, and maximize its lifespan, follow these essential care tips:

  • Hand Washing: Ditch the dishwasher and abrasive scrubbers. Instead, opt for a gentle hand wash using mild detergent. This will help avoid wearing down the enamel coating and exposing the underlying metal.
  • Utensil Selection: Banish metal utensils from your enameled pan’s vicinity. Opt for wooden or silicone utensils to prevent unsightly scratches.
  • Mind the Flames: Cooking at moderate temperatures is the name of the game. Avoid overheating to maintain the enamel’s integrity and color. Also avoid fast temperature changes, which can crack the enamel.
  • Thorough Drying: After washing, ensure your cookware is entirely dry before storage to prevent moisture-related damage.
  • Storage Savvy: Stack your enameled pots and pans carefully with soft protectors in between to prevent chipping.

Final Thoughts

While past concerns about lead and cadmium existed, the modern production methods used by reputable brands have put these worries to bed. By following proper care and usage guidelines, you can enjoy the safety and style of enamel cookware without fretting about safety concerns.

Ready to find the perfect non-toxic cookware for your kitchen? Read our guide, 11 Best Healthy Non-Toxic Cookware Sets (2023 Reviews), to see our pick for the best enamel cast iron pan, among many other types!